Check the documentation of best practices to know more about the experience from each experiment.
The goal of the OSPS experiment is demonstrating that Community Networks can support advanced multimedia services such as real-time video and TV distribution. The study of efficient video streaming techniques on Community Networks is not only a challenging and timely research topic but its result will also leave to the community a new service to increase the value of the network and better serve the community. Both these effects can be obtained on the basis of a previous FP7 project, namely NAPA-WINE, through the Open Source P2P streaming software PeerStreamer. The availability of both an open source code base and an application built with flexibility and network awareness in mind empowers the researchers to experiment with different configurations and use cases. The trend followed by mainstream video sharing platforms is to use cloud-based services to globally re-share videos that the users update on the platform. P2P video distribution instead generates mesh- like traffic by its nature, and, if the distributed content is locally created and of local interest the traffic is localized and self-contained in the Community Network without the need to use third-party platforms. This observation adds a further reason and curiosity for such experiments.
The project will produce a stable version of the application tailored for Community Networks that will remain available to users and to CONFINE in particular. Furthermore, the experiments will give useful indications on design and dimensioning of the networks as well as on the best practices to implement streaming services with various delay constraints on top of Community Networks. Finally, additional preliminary tests on related topics, such as privacy and security protection, will be orchestrated exploiting resourced external to this project1, thus creating additional value for both CONFINE (more experiments and testing) and for PAF-PFE (access to the experimental facilities).
When users connect to a community network (CN), the gateway to the Internet is shifted from a trusted home domain to a domain controlled by a potentially untrustworthy operator. The owner of a guest Access Point is able to learn private information of an associated user and link it to a concrete individual (e.g., by analyzing cookies, queries, visited URLs, unencrypted session data, or fingerprinting physical devices). A wide availability of easily deployable malicious software allows an increasing number of non-experts to perform rogue activities. The awareness of the described threats raises the necessity for appropriate techniques that ensure data protection and confidentiality. With our proposal we aim to tackle the above mentioned issues by evaluating and analyzing to which extent existing privacy-preserving routing techniques applied on the Internet can be transferred and tailored to the needs of community-based networks.
To this end we want to test which of the available privacy-preserving routing techniques can be efficiently deployed in the community-based networks on the example of the CONFINE testbed. We put our focus on lightweight methods developed by ourselves that are specially designed for environments with limited resources, lack of a central point of trust, and that are able to deal with a high churn rate. Therefore we will deploy our prototypes concretely on the CONFINE testbed and evaluate their applicability, performance, stability, self-adaptation and will use our existing tools for automated instantiation, measurements, data collection, and evaluation that were successfully used for a long-term experiments on the PlanetLab testbed. Here we benefit from our comprehensive research experience in the area of data protection, privacy-preserving routing, and node lookup services in untrustworthy environments.
Whistleblower laws protect individuals who inform the public or an authority about governmental or corporate misconduct. Despite these laws, whistleblowers frequently risk reprisals and sites such as WikiLeaks emerged to provide a level of anonymity to these individuals. However, as countries increase their level of network surveillance and Internet protocol data retention, the mere act of using anonymizing software such as Tor, or accessing a whistleblowing website through an SSL channel might be incriminating enough to lead to investigations and repercussions. As an alternative submission system we propose an online advertising network called AdLeaks. AdLeaks leverages the ubiquity of unsolicited online advertising to provide complete sender unobservability when submitting disclosures. AdLeaks ads compute a random function in a browser and submit the outcome to the AdLeaks infrastructure. Such a whistleblower’s browser replaces the output with encrypted information so that the transmission is indistinguishable from that of a regular browser. Its back-end design assures that AdLeaks must process only a fraction of the resulting traffic in order to receive disclosures with high probability.
We have implemented the AdLeaks system design and we have evaluated it through mathematical analysis and micro-benchmarks. We propose to study its scalability and practical applicability within the CONFINE testbed in order to validate our results empirically and to clarify necessary assumptions.
Wireless Community Networks (WCNs) are multi-hop mesh networks built by volunteers using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. WCNs are used to share the cost of Internet access, but also to support the distribution of community information and services. Anyway, such social goals may clash with the severe impairments provided by the multi-hop wireless channel, which reduces the quality of experience and, therefore, the attractiveness for new users to join the WCN. Several mechanisms have been proposed so far to face the effects of these impairments. Conversely, this project wishes to relieve the causes, rather than effects: we exploit the instruments of an Information Centric Network (ICN), namely in-network caching and routing-by-name, to shorten the multi-hop path through a dynamic replication of information and services, on community devices. Following an evolutionary approach, ICN functionality is deployed over IP, without compromising the operating regime of IP-based community services.
To evaluate the effectiveness of our concepts in a practical use-case, we prototype a community web hosting service, named WSaaS, that uses storage and computation resources of community user’s hosts, to dynamically replicate Web pages of community users. It is easy to recognize, that this service behaves as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), actually offered by Cloud Computing, where Software is just a Web Server. We use Community-Lab facility to carry out comparative experimentations, ICN vs. IP, showing performance improvements obtained both for basic point-to-point data transfer and within the community web hosting use-case. The exploitation of ICN over Wireless Community Networks is a research topic not yet addressed neither by the literature, nor by ongoing European projects. Therefore this project is a pioneer of this research area. Moreover, the CLONE project would establish a trait d’union between the CONFINE and CONVERGENCE FIRE projects, where CNIT is coordinator.
IEEE 802.11 (also known as Wi-Fi) is a pervasive and ubiquitous technology but with limited radio range, making the coverage of large geographical areas difficult. Multiple Wi-Fi access points can be used to enable connectivity towards a wired infrastructure. However, Wi-Fi-based Wireless Mesh Networks (hereafter WMNs) are a more cost-effective and flexible solution to extend wired network infrastructures. WMNs are part of the Future Internet concept and are the enablers of the community networks considered in CONFINE, capable of providing city-wide flexible and cost-effective Wi-Fi coverage to wireless terminals. INESC TEC has defined a solution for WMN, named Wi-Fi network Infrastructure eXtension (WiFIX), that considers (1) unicast, multicast, and broadcast routing, (2) channel assignment, and (3) multi-hop medium access control aspects, in order to support existing and new applications on top. WiFIX overcomes the disadvantages of existing WMN solutions, namely by: I) reducing routing signalling overhead; ii) considering a new approach for multicast/broadcast traffic diffusion that takes advantage of Wi-Fi built- in unicast data rate control and delivery guarantee; iii) defining a topology-aware channel assignment algorithm that increases WMN performance and scalability; iv) considering a multi-hop scheduling mechanism overlaid on the 802.11 MAC, which enables efficient and fair WMN multi-hop medium access;
WiFIX has been evaluated against state of the art solutions, and its higher efficiency and better performance have been demonstrated using theoretical analysis, ns-2/ns-3 simulations, and small-scale laboratory testbeds. This action aims to complement such evaluations with real-world, large-scale WMN experiments. For that purpose, we will leverage the available WiFIX Linux implementation and the real-world, large-scale Community-Lab testbed. The major objective is to validate existing theoretical and simulation results, and complement the experimental results achieved so far.