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Research publications

A selection of most cited research publications on “Community Networking”:

  • Catherine A. Middleton. A Framework for Investigating the Value of Public Wireless Networks. Paper for the 35th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy, September 2007 (6 citations).
    • Abstract: This paper investigates the value of deploying municipal wireless network infrastructure. By Vos's (2007c) estimate, there are more than 400 such networks, either deployed or in development in the United States. Many other wireless networks are operational, or being rolled out in cities around the world, including Toronto, London, Bologna, Singapore, Taipei and Perth. Developed by municipal governments, private providers or public-private partnerships, these networks are intended to serve the connectivity needs of local residents, tourists and business travellers.
  • Saumitra Das, Konstantina Papagiannaki, Suman Banerjee, Y. C. Tay. SWARM: self-organization of community wireless mesh networks. CoNEXT '07 Proceedings of the 2007 ACM CoNEXT conference (5 citations).
    • Abstract: Community wireless networks have been proposed as a powerful technique to spread broadband network access to underprivileged, under-provisioned and remote areas. These networks consist of a few Internet gateways which are reached by homes using multi-hop wireless links between wireless routers. The benefits of such networks include low costs for deployment due to reduced wiring needs, low maintenance and increased flexibility. Current practice in routing protocols for such networks (e.g. LQSR, OLSR and SrcRR) is for routing protocols to obtain information about the link quality (via some metric such as ETT, ETX) and select a gateway to whom a route minimizes the cost of the metric. All nodes operate on the same known frequency to maintain connectivity.
  • Ishmael, J.; Bury, S.; Pezaros, D.; Race, N. Deploying Rural Community Wireless Mesh Networks. Internet Computing Journal July-August 2008 (47 citations).
    • Abstract: Inadequate Internet access is widening the digital divide between town and countryside, degrading both social communication and business advancements in rural areas. Wireless mesh networking can provide an excellent framework for delivering broadband services to such areas. With this in mind, Lancaster University deployed a WMN in the rural village of Wray over a three-year period, providing the community with Internet service that exceeds many urban offerings. The project gave researchers a real-world testbed for exploring the technical and social issues entailed in deploying WMNs in the heart of a small community.
    • Abstract: Referring to empirical research on networks located in Montreal and Fredericton, Canada, the paper critiques the narrow approach to democratization of communication spaces inherent in networks of this type. This narrow focus is associated with metaphors used to describe a co-evolution of wireless technology and urban space. The paper identifies that the design processes that shape these networks could benefit from a more radical democratization associated with metaphors of recombination of space and technology. Such a shift in the framing and design of urban technology projects would have an impact on local wireless projects as well as many other projects aimed at democratizing communications or otherwise advancing social justice aims.

A selection of related research publications:

  • Allen, W., Martin, A., & Rangarajan, A. (2005). Designing and Deploying a Rural Ad-Hoc Community Mesh Network Testbed. The IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks 30th Anniversary LCN05l, 740-743.
    • Abstract: Rural communities suffer from a lack of infrastructure for inexpensive high-speed access to the Internet. One approach to providing high-speed access in these environments is to share a small number of more expensive high-speed connections across the community. A wireless mesh network can provide a low-cost backbone to enable this sharing. Existing solutions to building community mesh networks use proprietary technology or typically require rooftop or other outdoor antenna deployment. We examine the feasibility of constructing a community mesh network in a rural neighborhood at Dartmouth College using off-the-shelf hardware and software components and without using an outdoor antenna. We identify several challenges to construction of such networks including network density, hardware limitations, and US electrical code. In this paper, we outline some of the key challenges we faced during our deployment and suggest solutions.
  • J-P. Barraca, P. Fernandes, S. Sargento and R. Rocha, An Architecture for Community Mesh Networking, IEEE PIMRC 2008 Social Mesh Networking Workshop, Cannes, France, Sept. 2008.
    • Abstract: This paper presents a modular cross-layer community management architecture, which considers that communities are formed and managed at different layers, from physical to application. It focus in more depth on one of its modules, implementing a community discovery mechanism designed to work in wireless mesh networks, and able to perform community advertisement and discovery with low overhead and delay, as compared to current approaches.
  • V. Brik, S. Rayanchu, S. Saha, S. Sen, V. Shrivastava, S. Banerjee. A measurement study of a commercial-grade urban wifi mesh. In IMC ’08: Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement (2008), pp. 111-124.
    • Abstract: We present a measurement study of a large-scale urban WiFi mesh network consisting of more than 250 Mesh Access Points (MAPs), with paying customers that use it for Internet access.
  • R. Chakravorty, S. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, I.Pratt, A mobile bazaar for wide-area wireless services, Journal Wireless Networks Volume 13 Issue 6, December 2007.
    • Abstract: We introduce MoB, an infrastructure for collaborative wide-area wireless data services. MoB proposes to change the current model of data services in the following fundamental ways: (1) it decouples infrastructure providers from services providers and enables fine-grained competition, (2) it allows service interactions on arbitrary timescales, and, (3) it promotes flexible composition of these fine-grained service interactions based on user and application needs.
  • Cao, Y., Krebs, M., Toubekis, G., & Makram, S. (2007). Mobile Community Information Systems on Wireless Mesh Networks – An Opportunity for Developing Countries and Rural Areas. Information Systems Journal.
    • Abstract: In the research cluster of UMIC project under German Excellence Initiatives, we examine scenarios for developing countries and rural areas where the traditional communication infrastructures are not well developed and new mobile technologies are expected to have an enormous impact on cultural and social development. We design applications at different technology levels ranging from the underlying network infrastructure to the frontend user interfaces. The first prototype for cultural heritage management in Afghanistan on a mobile platform is demonstrated. Open research questions are addressed for the further research work.
  • Chen, Z. Y., Zhou, J. Y., Chen, Y. Q., Chen, X., & Goo, X. Y. (2009). DEPLOYING A SOCIAL COMMUNITY NETWORK IN RURAL AREAS BASED ON WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS. 2009 Ieee Youth Conference on Information Computing and Telecommunication Proceedings, 443-446
    • Abstract: The lack of adequate Internet provision in rural areas is widening the digital divide between town and country. This is proving detrimental to social communication as well as the advancement of rural businesses. Technologies including wireless mesh networking provide an excellent framework on which broadband services can be delivered into deeply rural locations where there is currently little or no infrastructure to offer such a service. This paper details the technical and social experiences encountered during the deployment of a wireless mesh networking infrastructure to the village of Wray, a rural area in the North West of England.
  • S. Das, K. Papagiannaki, S. Banerjee, and Y.C. Tay SWARM: The Power of Structure in Community Wireless Mesh Networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking.
    • Abstract: Community wireless networks (CWNs) have been proposed to spread broadband network access to underprivileged, underprovisioned and remote areas. Research has focused on optimizing network performance through intelligent routing and scheduling, borrowing solutions from mesh networks. Surprisingly, however, there has been no work on how to make efficient use of multiple channels in CWNs in the presence of multiple gateways, and a single radio per device. In this paper, we propose, design, implement, and evaluate SWARM, a practical system that allows a CWN to make effective use of the available wireless channels in order to offer globally optimal performance.
  • Ishmael, J. Bury, S. Pezaros, D. Race, N., Deploying Rural Community Wireless Mesh Networks, IEEE Internet Computing, 12 (4), 2008, 22-29.
    • Abstract: Inadequate Internet access is widening the digital divide between town and countryside, degrading both social communication and business advancements in rural areas. Wireless mesh networking can provide an excellent framework for delivering broadband services to such areas. With this in mind, Lancaster University deployed a WMN in the rural village of Wray over a three-year period, providing the community with Internet service that exceeds many urban offerings. The project gave researchers a real-world testbed for exploring the technical and social issues entailed in deploying WMNs in the heart of a small community.
  • Johnathan Ishmael, Fabian Hugelshofer, Paul Smith, Nicholas J.P. Race. MeshUp: reliably evolving a living lab. WiNTECH '10 Proceedings of the fifth ACM international workshop on Wireless network testbeds, experimental evaluation and characterization.
    • Abstract: The software deployed in experimental networks is subject to high rates of change, which can lead to down-time. Often these experimental networks, so-called Living Labs, are deployed in remote locations with restricted access to hardware, and are in-part administered by non-technical users. This suggests that a mechanism is required by researchers for reliable and remote updating of the software on a Living Lab network. In this paper, we describe the design and open-source implementation of MeshUp - a novel reliable software update mechanism for network devices in a wireless mesh network. MeshUp will play a key role in our research by allowing us to remotely deploy new software and maintain acceptable service to users on the Wray Living Lab, ensuring its sustainability.
  • C. Jiang, C. Chen, J. Chang, R. Jan, T. Chieh Chiang. Construct Small Worlds in Wireless Networks Using Data Mules. 2008 IEEE International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing, 2008.
    • Abstract: In a wireless network, the small world phenomenon is used in the development of novel routing strategies. This study proposes a new method to construct a small world in a wireless network. Instead of deploying wired lines as shortcuts. Variable length shortcuts are constructed by using mobile router nodes called data mules. Data mules move data between nodes which don't have direct wireless communication link. These data mules imitate shortcuts in a small world. The small world phenomenon in connected and disconnected wireless networks containing various numbers of data mules is then discussed. Finally the small world phenomenon is considered in wireless sensor networks.
  • Kretschmer, M., Robitzsch, S., Niephaus, C., Jonas, K., & Ghinea, G. (2008). Wireless Mesh Network Coverage with QoS Differentiation for Rural Areas. First International Workshop on Wireless Broadband Access for Communities and Rural Developing Regions.
    • Abstract: Mesh networks for rural or developing areas have a strong potential for growth, both economically and physically. On the technical side this requires the mesh protocols to grow with the user requirements from an initial best effort service to a near 'carrier grade' network delivering QoS differentiated services. Energy efficiency and autonomous operations are crucial factors since neither 24/7 electricity supply nor access to a technician can be assumed. Internet connectivity is often provided through multiple backbone connections. Such a mesh network could be run by local entrepreneurs, small telcos or by first responders in an emergency area. At the Fraunhofer Campus in Sankt Augustin, Germany a testbed for such a network is currently being set up. It consists of nomadic mesh nodes using WLAN, WiMAX and DVB-T radios and provides access to mobile users. Due to the rather fixed location of the mesh nodes an OSPF-area based routing approach is considered which is enhanced by a component to allow for proper QoS differentiation. Support for emerging technologies is provided by a generic radio interface layer to enable future network enhancements. Self-configuration techniques are an integral part of the mesh protocols yielding a low maintenance overhead and requiring only a minimal set of initial configuration, therefore providing a very cost-effective mesh solution with potential for future growth. Channel/frequency allocation supports omni-directional antennae as well as multi-radio sectorized and beamforming antennae to reduce interference and to increase the network performance. The implementation is based on the SENF C++ library which also allows for a larger scale emulation of the mesh network to examine scalability and to support performance tuning. This contribution outlines the initial architecture and our proposals for an optimised QoS-based routing in a near-static wireless mesh network for rural areas.
  • J. Ormont, J. Walker, S. Banerjee, A. Sridharan, M. Seshadri, S. Machiraju. A City-Wide Vehicular Infrastructure for Wide-area Wireless Experimentation. WiNTECH ’08 Proceedings of the third ACM international workshop on Wireless network testbeds, experimental evaluation and characterization, 2008.
    • Abstract: We describe our experiences in building a city-wide infrastructure for wide-area wireless experimentation. Our infrastructure has two components -(i) a vehicular testbed consisting of wireless nodes, each equipped with both cellular (EV-DO) and WiFi interfaces, and mounted on city buses plying in Madison, Wisconsin, and (ii) a software platform to utilize these testbed nodes to continuously monitor and characterize performance of large scale wireless networks, such as city-wide mesh networks, unplanned deployments of WiFi hotspots, and cellular networks. Beyond our initial efforts in building and deploying this infrastructure, we have also utilized it to gain some initial understanding of the diversity of user experience in large-scale wireless networks, especially under various mobility scenarios. Since our vehicle-mounted testbed nodes have fairly deterministic mobility patterns, they provide us with much needed performance data on parameters such as RF coverage and available bandwidth, as well as quantify the impact of mobility on performance. We use our initial measurements from this testbed to showcase its ability to provide an efficient, low-cost, and robust method to monitor our target wireless networks. These initial measurements also highlight the challenges we face as we continue to expand this infrastructure. We discuss what these challenges are and how we intend to address them.
  • Oliver, M.; Zuidweg, J.; Batikas, M.; Wireless Commons against the digital divide. IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS), pages 457 – 465, June 2010.
    • Abstract: Guifi is a community-based telecommunications network that originated in a rural area of the Spanish region of Catalonia. Guifi primarily uses unlicensed spectrum for its communications links, and its users create network nodes on a volunteer basis from state-of-the-art yet inexpensive off-the-shelf WiFi equipment. Guifi's self-organizing community is governed by a Wireless Commons charter that views unlicensed spectrum as a public asset, which means that Guifi satisfies the definition of both an open Commons (an open network with free access) and a closed Commons (a self regulating community with a well defined charter). This article identifies key factors for the exponential growth and success of the WiFi network, which has put some rural areas in Catalonia well above European average for broadband penetration. Moreover, this article identifies the threats that Guifi faces as both an open and closed Commons, and explores what Guifi does or should do to mitigate them. These threats are referred to in literature as the “Tragedy of the Commons”. Finally, the article also considers possible consequences of Guifi's intentions to expand its network with fiber connections.
  • Powell, A. The public utility and the public park: Metaphors and models for community-based Wi-Fi networking. IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society, 2008. ISTAS 2008.
    • Abstract: The rising and falling fortunes of municipal wireless networking projects in the United States have raised questions about whether and how Wi-Fi connectivity should be provided as a public service. Two metaphors provide ways of thinking about the purpose of public Wi-Fi. This paper discusses how the ldquopublic servicerdquo and ldquopublic parkrdquo metaphors for Wi-Fi networking can be applied to Frederictonpsilas Fred-eZone project, North Americapsilas first municipally owned free Wi-Fi network, as a means of comparing it with other North American Wi-Fi networks, especially Montrealpsilas Ile Sans Fil network, which also uses hotspots. Specifically, the paper describes how different metaphors can assist network planners in determining the scope of their project. The ldquopublic utilityrdquo metaphor for Wi-Fi networks focuses on the potential for Wi-Fi to act as a type of internet access infrastructure. In contrast, the ldquopublic parkrdquo metaphor concentrates on the symbolic space of sociability, play, and democratic engagement that Wi-Fi networks could create. This metaphor suggests that Wi-Fi could be used as a form of media. Municipalities considering Wi-Fi networks can learn from applications of these metaphors.
  • Saumitra Das, Konstantina Papagiannaki, Suman Banerjee, Y. C. Tay, SWARM: Self-organization of Community Wireless Mesh Networks, 2007.
    • Abstract: Community wireless networks have been proposed as a powerful technique to spread broadband network access to underprivileged, under-provisioned and remote areas. These networks consist of a few Internet gateways which are reached by homes using multi-hop wireless links between wireless routers. The benefits of such networks include low costs for deployment due to reduced wiring needs, low maintenance and increased flexibility. Current practice in routing protocols for such networks (e.g. LQSR, OLSR and SrcRR) is for routing protocols to obtain information about the link quality (via some metric such as ETT, ETX) and select a gateway to whom a route minimizes the cost of the metric. All nodes operate on the same known frequency to maintain connectivity.
  • Syed Sherjeel Ahmad Gilani, Muhammad Zubair, Zeeshan Shafi Khan. Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network. Communications in Computer and Information Science Journal 2010, Volume 76, 225-232.
    • Abstract: Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.
  • S. Surana, R. Patra, S. Nedevschi, M. Ramos et al, Beyond Pilots: Keeping Rural Wireless Networks Alive, NSDI’08, USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, 2008.
    • Abstract: Very few computer systems that have been deployed in rural developing regions manage to stay operationally sustainable over the long term; most systems do not go beyond the pilot phase. The reasons for this failure vary: components fail often due to poor power quality, fault diagnosis is hard to achieve in the absence of local expertise and reliable connectivity for remote experts, and fault prediction is non-existent. Any solution addressing these issues must be extremely low-cost for rural viability. We take a broad systemic view of the problem, document the operational challenges in detail, and present low-cost and sustainable solutions for several aspects of the system including monitoring, power, backchannels, recovery mechanisms, and software. Our work in the last three years has led to the deployment and scaling of two rural wireless networks: (1) the Aravind telemedicine network in southern India supports video-conferencing for 3000 rural patients per month, and is targeting 500,000 patient examinations per year, and (2) the AirJaldi network in nothern India provides Internet access and VoIP services to 10,000 rural users.
  • R. Sombrutzki, A. Zubow, M. Kurth, J. P. Redlich. Self-Organization in Community Mesh Networks The Berlin RoofNet, Operator-Assisted (Wireless Mesh) Community Networks, 2006 1st Workshop on (2006), pp. 1-11
    • Abstract: A community network must be usable for inexperienced end users; thus self-organization is essential. On the one hand, we propose an approach for self-organization in ad-hoc wireless multi-hop mesh networks, where the client is fully freed from such mundane tasks as IP configuration, etc. On the other hand, the community mesh network itself is fully self-organized thus no operator or provider is required. We present the architecture of the Berlin RoofNet (BRN) and a distributed realization of services like DHCP, ARP and Internet gateway discovery and selection. In addition, results of a detailed simulation and experimental evaluation comparing our distributed hash table based approach to traditional methods are presented. We show that our approach is more reliable, efficient and responsive.
  • Takahashi, Y., Owada, Y., Okada, H., & Mase, K. (2007). A wireless mesh network testbed in rural mountain areas. Proceedings of the the second ACM international workshop on Wireless network testbeds experimental evaluation and characterization WinTECH 07, 91. ACM Press.
    • Abstract: We have built a wireless mesh network testbed, which is tolerant of disaster and aim to resolve a digital divide issue in rural mountain areas. This testbed is located in two areas and has total 22 nodes which are installed on the power poles in these areas. Two areas are connected to a control server at Niigata university with broadband wireless access systems using 5 GHz band via a gate way node at the local-government office, which is located at the center of two areas. Each node has two wireless LAN interfaces with IEEE 802.11b/g and a wireless LAN access point. We measure the throughput and the packet transmission successful ratio of links in our testbed. Moreover, we investigate the technical issues to manage and operate the mesh network in the rural mountain areas.
  • Wu, D.; Mohapatra, P. QuRiNet: A wide-area wireless mesh testbed for research and experimental evaluation, Second International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010.
    • Abstract: Research in wireless mesh networks have been growinginrecentyears. Manytestbedshavebeencreatedtostudy networking protocols in wireless mesh networks. In this work, we describe QuRiNet, an outdoor wide-area wireless mesh network deployed in a natural reserve. We describe various research efforts that have been leveraging the QuRiNet testbed. Several interesting measurement data are reported in addition to their impact due to various network configurations and technological variations. Mesh nodes in QuRiNet are powered by solar panels, runningwithmultipleradios. QuRiNetprovides thebackbone for transporting ecological and environmental data from the field to the labs. The goal of deploying QuRiNet is to create a research platformforadvancewirelessmeshnetworkingresearch.Physical link distances in QuRiNet range from hundreds to thousands of meters. QuRiNet has been used for experimental research studies including:channel assignment, network monitoring, andmobility studies.
pub/related.txt · Last modified: 2012/04/20 00:18 by zafar